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冷渦背景下一次致災超級單體雹暴過(guò)程的數值模擬
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A Numerical Simulation Study of a Supercell Hailstorm under a Cold Vortex
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    摘要:

    利用WRF模式,結合自動(dòng)站觀(guān)測資料、多普勒雷達資料和NECP再分析資料,對2018年6月13日山東中部一次冰雹天氣過(guò)程的環(huán)流背景、觸發(fā)和維持機制、雹云流場(chǎng)結構特征以及冰雹形成機制進(jìn)行分析。結果表明:本次冰雹天氣過(guò)程是在華北冷渦背景下,由中尺度地面輻合線(xiàn)觸發(fā)生成的超級單體雹暴過(guò)程。降雨和下沉氣流引發(fā)的地面冷池進(jìn)一步增強了地面輻合;雹云頂端強輻散出流的抽吸作用是動(dòng)力不穩定維持機制。WRF模式模擬的雹云具有有界弱回波、回波懸垂等超級單體特征。模擬雹云的成熟階段0 ℃高度位于4 km,超過(guò)40 dBz的回波高度達到12 km;在流場(chǎng)上主體為上升運動(dòng),且上升運動(dòng)兩側存在上升→下沉→上升運動(dòng)的轉換,有利于冰雹的碰并增長(cháng)。雪晶最初由過(guò)冷云水和云冰碰并生成,之后通過(guò)碰并過(guò)冷水轉化為霰粒子,為冰雹生成提供了充足的雹胚。霰粒子和雹粒子在上升運動(dòng)的帶動(dòng)下反復經(jīng)過(guò)雹云中的過(guò)冷水累積帶有利于自身不斷增長(cháng)并轉化形成大冰雹。

    Abstract:

    Based on the automatic meteorological station data, Doppler radar data and NECP /FNL reanalysis data, the circulation background, trigger and maintenance mechanisms, supercell structure, and cloud microphysical characters of a supercell hailstorm occurred on 13 June 2018 in the central Shandong Province are studied with the WRF model. The study shows that the hailstorm was a supercell hailstorm triggered by the mesoscale convergence line under the background of cold vortex in North China. The suction of the strong divergent flow at the top of the hail cloud was the dynamic instability maintenance mechanism. In the mature stage of the simulated hail cloud, the height of the 0 ℃ level was 4 km, and the echo height of more than 40 dBz reached 12 km; in the flow field, ascending motion was dominated, and there was a motion conversion of ascendingdescendingascending on both sides of the ascending motion, which was conducive to the collision and growth of the hail. The snow crystals were formed by the collision of supercooled cloud water and cloud ice at first, and then transformed into graupel particles by the collision of supercooled water and cloud ice, which provided enough hail embryos for hail formation. Graupel and hail particles, driven by the ascending motion, passed through the supercooled water accumulation zone of the hail cloud repeatedly, which was conducive to their continuous growth and transformation into large hailstones.

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李根,吳福浪,鄭怡.冷渦背景下一次致災超級單體雹暴過(guò)程的數值模擬[J].氣象科技,2021,49(2):218~226

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  • 收稿日期:2020-05-07
  • 定稿日期:2020-11-19
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  • 在線(xiàn)發(fā)布日期: 2021-04-25
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